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USB A B C   4

USB TYPE C

USB Type C is a specification for a reversible plug connector for USB Devices and Cabling.  An important benefit of the USB Type C is that it supports USB4, USB 3.2, 3.1, USB 3.0, USB 2.0 and Thunderbolt Technology.  USB Type C ports can support a variety of different protocols using “AlternateModes”, which allows you to output Power, Data and Video Signals and use of adapters that can output HDMI, VGA, DisplayPort or other types of connections from that Single USB port.This allows for future devices to streamline their design to offer multiple output solutions through one singular output.


Most common USB ports

Most common USB ports

USB Version History

Developed in the 1990s, USB has become the most successful computing interface yet. The throughput has improved from 1.5Mbps to 40Gbps through standards evolution.

1998USB 1.x Low Speed LS 1.5Mbps Full Speed FS 12Mbps 
2000USB 2.0 High Speed HS 480 Mbps FS/LS 
2001USB on the Go USB 2.0 OTG Master / Slave configurable
2008USB 3.0 USB 3.1 Gen 1 Super Speed SS 5Gbps / HS/ FS / LS
2013USB 3.1 Gen 2 Super Speed + SS+ 10Gbps SS/HS/FS/LS
2014USB 3.2 Gen 2 Super Speed + SS+ 10Gbps and Gen2x2(Dual Lane) for 20-Gbps SS/HS/FS/LS
2017USB Type C USB 10Gbps DP 8.1Gbps and Power 100 W
2019 USB4 requires USB-C connectors

USB Battery Charging - BC 1.2

USB Battery Charging technology ensures that one can safely charge mobile devices through the particular USB Port with Battery Charging Feature support.Previously a USB Portable Device with a battery and charging capability simply took power from a USB port without any control.With “BC 1.2” introduced end of 2010, a Portable Device can get more power and the battery can be charged faster. It is important to verify that a Portable Device complies with the BC 1.2 specifications while communicating with a Charging Downstream Port and identifying a Dedicated Charger, and ensuring that it continues to operate as a functional USB device.

What is Power Delivery

Some external devices, like the computer mouse, also need some power from the USB Port to operate. This power can be delivered through standard USB connection. The Default Power that USB 1.0 and 2.0 can deliver is 2.5Watt (5Volt, 0.5A), USB 3.0 and 3.1 can deliver 4.5Watt (5V, 0.9A), USB 3.2 can deliver 7.5W (5V/1.5A) and USB 4 can deliver 240Watt. For the external devices requiring more power, different technologies have been developed. It is important to distinguish following 2 technologies: “USB Power Delivery” and “USB Battery Charging”.

USB Power Delivery (PD): Power Delivery works equally well with USB2.0, 3.x and 4 allowing power draw up to 240Watt from the source device. The power can be transferred simultaneously with data through the same cable. The goal of this technology is to permit uniform, consistent charging for laptops, tablets, USB-powered drives and similarly higher power consumer electronics. Please note that an Active USB Type C Cable with E-Marker Chip, like the Club 3D CAC-1573, is recommended to use for the Power Delivery up to 240 Watt to ensure safe connection. USB PD3.1 is defined by different profiles and depends on the configuration used by each manufacturer. 


What is Power Delivery

USB Charging Table

Release
name
Release
date
Max.
power
Note
USB Battery Charging 1.03/8/075 V, ? A 
USB Battery Charging 1.14/15/095 V, 1.8 A
USB2.0’s standard-A Port,
1.5A only
USB Battery Charging 1.212/7/105 V, 5 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 1.0 (version 1.0)7/5/1220 V, 5 A
Using FSK protocol 
over bus power (VBUS)
USB Power Delivery   
revision 1.0 (version 1.3)3/11/1420 V, 5 A 
USB Type-C rev1.08/11/145 V, 3 A
New connector and 
cable specification
USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.0)8/11/1420 V, 5 A
Using BMC protocol over
communication channel
(CC) on USB-C cables
USB Type-C rev1.14/3/155 V, 3 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.1)5/7/1520 V, 5 A 
USB Type-C rev1.23/25/165 V, 3 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.2)3/25/1620 V, 5 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.3)1/12/1720 V, 5 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 1.1)1/12/1720 V, 5 A 
USB Type-C rev1.37/14/175 V, 3 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 1.2)6/21/1820 V, 5 A 
USB Type-C rev1.43/29/195 V, 3 A 
USB Type-C rev2.08/29/195 V, 3 A
Enabling USB4 over
USB Type-C 
connectors and cables
USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 2.0)8/29/1920 V, 5 A 
USB Power Delivery revision 3.1
5/26/21
48 V, 5 A

Understanding FRS - Fast-Role-Swap

External Power Source (Fig: A)
When using an external Power Source (Power Charger) the Power is flowing thru the USB Power Delivery Dock and charging the Host laptop. This is achieved by the state of the FRS signal (part of the USB PD definition).

In Fig.A its direction is marked in RED. In case the Power Source looses its Power (for any reason) it will toggle the FRS signal, which is passed on thru the PD capable Dock onto the Host. The Host will recognize this change and acknowledge this signal back to the Dock and revert the Power flow from charging to being the supplier of Power (Fig. B).

Understanding FRS - Fast-Role-Swap

Abbreviations:

What does it mean:
CC:Configuration Channel PD:Power Delivery
DFP:Downstream Facing Port PPS:Programmable Power Supply
DRP:Dual Role Port UFP:Upstream Facing Port
FSR:Fast Role Swap USB:Universal Serial Bus

Example FRS Power Charging

Example FRS Power Charging

GaN: The Gallium Nitride Secret

As you probably know, computers today are made from silicon chips. This happened because silicon is a, widely available, element and relatively easy to work with. It's also an excellent semiconductor because of its adjustable electrical properties. However, Gallium nitride or GaN is discovered to be a newer, better alternative to silicon. This material is better at conducting higher voltage over longer times compared to silicon. Electrical currents also travel faster through it, allowing for faster processing. This better conductivity leads to higher efficiency. That's because it doesn't need as much energy to get the same output as compared to silicon transistors. It also allowed manufacturers to create chips in a denser, more compact form since less energy meant less heat. GaN chips also have higher voltage capacity and are more resistant to heat, perfect for power transfer applications. All these properties make GaN perfect for charging technologies. It can output the same power as silicon chips without requiring as much space, produce less heat despite having high wattage, and is more power-efficient. That's why you can buy small GaN power chargers that can fast-charge multiple devices while retaining the same size as your current charger.

GaN: The Gallium Nitride Secret

Why Is Gallium Nitride Superior to Silicon?

In layman’s terms, GaN a crystal-like material that can pass through higher voltages faster than silicon. However, if we take a more in-depth sneak into technology, we may require little physics knowledge.
The benefits of GaN compared to silicon boil down to power efficiency “All semiconductor materials have what is called a bandgap. This is an energy range in a solid where no electrons can exist. Simply put, a bandgap is related to how well a solid material can conduct electricity. Gallium nitride has a 3.4 eV bandgap, compared to silicon’s 1.12 eV bandgap. GaN is capable of conducting electrons 1,000 times more efficiently than silicon. A higher bandgap efficiency means the current can pass through a GaN chip faster than a silicon one. 

Benefits of a GaN USB Charger

The benefits of GaN chargers may seem simple and obvious. These wall chargers tend to be physically smaller than silicon chargers. This is only because gallium nitride doesn’t need the components and supports silicon does. 
On average, it will charge a device up to 2.5 times faster than a standard silicon 1A output.

What Is A GaN Charger

GaN chargers can power all USB Type-A and -C devices, from your smartphone to laptops. 

What Is A GaN Charger

Why Buy A GaN Charger

The primary reason to buy a GaN charger is that they’re more efficient at transferring current. Chargers made with gallium nitride tend to last longer as well. This means you get more energy put into your device which equates to less time it takes to charge your smartphone or other devices.
The reduction in consumption of materials such as plastic is achieved with the increase in so-called power density that enables smaller components to manage a larger power delivery. A high power density also cuts down recycling and environmental costs.
If every power adapter achieved at least 1% higher efficiency, the world could save about 90 terawatt-hours of energy, equivalent to the output of 12 (average sized)nuclear plants, in addition, if one billion chargers worldwide were to use GaN technology, Approx. 0.2 million tons of plastics and raw materials could be saved.

Why Buy A GaN Charger

What is USB 3.1

“USB” stands for Universal Serial Bus and “3.1” is the recently released standard which indicates the technology and specifications it is compliant to.

USB Type C is nott he same asUSB3.1–USBType C is just a connector shape and the underlying technology could just be USB 2.0 , 3.x. Furthermore there are different USB Type-C 3.1 versions the “Gen1” and “Gen2”.

USB Type-C 3.1 Gen 1 means that the USB technology used is like USB3.0 (5Gbps).

USB Type-C 3.1 Gen 2 means that the technology used is USB 3.1 over 2-lanes(10Gbps).
To be able to send Video signals over USB 3.1 Type-C (Gen2) the source device (PC/Laptop) will need to have displayport Alternate Mode Support. Although Thunderbolt 3 is also coming out with a USB Type C connector, it is not the same as USB 3.1 Type C Gen2.


What is USB 3.1

What is USB Graphic?

USB Graphic Technology allows you to connect almost any kind of display via a standard USB connector or cable. USB Graphics technology is available for USB type C only. The technology is designed to be simple and easy to use: just install the software, plug in your device and within a few seconds you have got a new monitor, docking station or projector connected to your PC. There is simply no easier way to add a display to your PC or Mac. Club3D offers a wide range of products from universal USB docking Stations to USB Graphic adapters.

For Apple users: Apple display settings will hide the resolution, so please hold down the option button on the Apple display resolution interface and then click zoom position of the resolution interface to display the hidden resolution. Then check the real resolution.

Video Performance
USB Graphic offloads all the heavy lifting of HD Video Playback and 3D Rendering to the GPU of your device. If your GPU performance is good you can even play games on a 4K Monitor.
USB Graphic provides support for HDCP which means that you will not get a blank screen when trying to watch the latest HD Movie.

Discover True Detail
4K also known as Ultra High Definition (UHD) delivers four times as much details as 1080p Full HD, that is eight million pixels compared to two million pixels, bringing more image clarity, fine detail and greater texture. Now you can embrace these technologies with just a free USB Port.

About USB4

The NEW Generation of USB4™ Technology is providing faster data performance, a better charging experience, the convenience of interoperability and certified reliability.
Key characteristics of the USB4™ solution include two-lane operation and up to 40Gbps operation over 40Gbps-certified cables. Multiple data and display protocols efficiently share the total available bandwidth over the bus. The USB4™ architecture defines a method to share a single high-speed link with multiple end device types dynamically that best serves the transfer of data by type and application. 

Summary - Bandwidth vs Speed

Bandwidth versus Speed
Bandwidth is the capacity available for use in data transmission. Speed is the rate of data transfer across the transmission path.
Maximum Amount
The bandwidth can be a higher value depending on the characteristics of the transmission medium etc. For a given network speed of a connection cannot be higher than the bandwidth of the network connection.
Unit of Measurement
The measurement for bandwidth in communication is Hz and bps in network connections. The measurement of speed is bps.
Communication Through a Bus Inside a Processor
The bandwidth is the amount of data transmits via the bus. The speed is the clock rate of the bus.


USB Types and Naming

Spec:

Name

Previous
name

USB-IF
branding

Data
rate

Transfer
speed

LOGO

USB 3.0

USB 3.2 Gen 1

USB 3.1 Gen1

SuperSpeed USB 5Gbps

5 Gbit/s

500 MB/s

USB 3.1

USB 3.2 Gen 2

USB 3.1 Gen2

SuperSpeed USB 10Gbps

10 Gbit/s

1.21 GB/s

USB 3.2

USB 3.2 Gen 2x2

N/A

SuperSpeed USB 20Gbps

20 Gbit/s

2.42 GB/s

USB4

USB Gen 2x2

Thunderbolt 3

SuperSpeed USB 40Gbps

40 Gbit/s

4.8 GB/s

USB4 Features

  • Bandwidth up to 40Gbps
  • Power Delivery up to 240W
  • E-mark IC
  • Support more protocols, DisplayPort™ and PCI express
  • Type-C cable ONLY
  • Backwards compatible with USB3.2, USB2.0 and Thunderbolt™ 3 (the resulting connection scales to the best mutual capability of the devices being connected.)
  • USB-IF Certified

USB4 Features

USB4 Transfer Speed

40GB/s Data Bandwidth | Thunderbolt 3 Compatible | Dynamic Bandwidth Sharing | 240W Power Delivery

USB4 Transfer Speed

USB4 Advantages


USB4 Advantages

Difference Between Bandwidth and Speed

You might come across bandwidth and data transfer rate being used synonymously. While they are related, they refer to two very different measurements. Here is the explanation of differences. The key difference between bandwidth and speed is that the bandwidth is the capacity available for use in data transmission while the speed is the data transferring rate.

Bandwidth Bandwidth is the maximum potential data that can be transferred within a given time. The bandwidth is shared among all users of the bandwidth.

Data Transfer Rate The data transfer rate is the actual amount of data that is passed from one location to another over a given period of time. The most common example is a Link Aggregation where a number of Ethernet connection are bonded into a single interface. The bandwidth is the sum of the total connections but the speed is determined by the physical network connection.

Difference Between Bandwidth and Speed

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