USB TYPE C
USB Type C is a specification for a reversible plug connector for USB Devices and Cabling. An important benefit of the USB Type C is that it supports USB4, USB 3.2, 3.1, USB 3.0, USB 2.0 and Thunderbolt Technology. USB Type C ports can support a variety of different protocols using “AlternateModes”, which allows you to output Power, Data and Video Signals and use of adapters that can output HDMI, VGA, DisplayPort or other types of connections from that Single USB port.This allows for future devices to streamline their design to offer multiple output solutions through one singular output.
Most common USB ports
USB Version History
Developed in the 1990s, USB has become the most successful computing interface yet. The throughput has improved from 1.5Mbps to 40Gbps through standards evolution.
|1998||USB 1.x Low Speed LS 1.5Mbps Full Speed FS 12Mbps|
|2000||USB 2.0 High Speed HS 480 Mbps FS/LS|
|2001||USB on the Go USB 2.0 OTG Master / Slave configurable|
|2008||USB 3.0 USB 3.1 Gen 1 Super Speed SS 5Gbps / HS/ FS / LS|
|2013||USB 3.1 Gen 2 Super Speed + SS+ 10Gbps SS/HS/FS/LS|
|2014||USB 3.2 Gen 2 Super Speed + SS+ 10Gbps and Gen2x2(Dual Lane) for 20-Gbps SS/HS/FS/LS|
|2017||USB Type C USB 10Gbps DP 8.1Gbps and Power 100 W|
|2019||USB4 requires USB-C connectors|
USB Battery Charging - BC 1.2
USB Battery Charging technology ensures that one can safely charge mobile devices through the particular USB Port with Battery Charging Feature support.Previously a USB Portable Device with a battery and charging capability simply took power from a USB port without any control.With “BC 1.2” introduced end of 2010, a Portable Device can get more power and the battery can be charged faster. It is important to verify that a Portable Device complies with the BC 1.2 specifications while communicating with a Charging Downstream Port and identifying a Dedicated Charger, and ensuring that it continues to operate as a functional USB device.
What is Power Delivery
Some external devices, like the computer mouse, also need some power from the USB Port to operate. This power can be delivered through standard USB connection. The Default Power that USB 1.0 and 2.0 can deliver is 2.5Watt (5Volt, 0.5A), USB 3.0 and 3.1 can deliver 4.5Watt (5V, 0.9A), USB 3.2 can deliver 7.5W (5V/1.5A) and USB 4 can deliver 240Watt. For the external devices requiring more power, different technologies have been developed. It is important to distinguish following 2 technologies: “USB Power Delivery” and “USB Battery Charging”.
USB Power Delivery (PD): Power Delivery works equally well with USB2.0, 3.x and 4 allowing power draw up to 240Watt from the source device. The power can be transferred simultaneously with data through the same cable. The goal of this technology is to permit uniform, consistent charging for laptops, tablets, USB-powered drives and similarly higher power consumer electronics. Please note that an Active USB Type C Cable with E-Marker Chip, like the Club 3D CAC-1573, is recommended to use for the Power Delivery up to 240 Watt to ensure safe connection. USB PD3.1 is defined by different profiles and depends on the configuration used by each manufacturer.
USB Charging Table
|USB Battery Charging 1.0||3/8/07||5 V, ? A|
|USB Battery Charging 1.1||4/15/09||5 V, 1.8 A|
USB2.0’s standard-A Port,
|USB Battery Charging 1.2||12/7/10||5 V, 5 A|
|USB Power Delivery revision 1.0 (version 1.0)||7/5/12||20 V, 5 A|
Using FSK protocol
over bus power (VBUS)
|USB Power Delivery|
|revision 1.0 (version 1.3)||3/11/14||20 V, 5 A|
|USB Type-C rev1.0||8/11/14||5 V, 3 A|
New connector and
|USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.0)||8/11/14||20 V, 5 A|
Using BMC protocol over
(CC) on USB-C cables
|USB Type-C rev1.1||4/3/15||5 V, 3 A|
|USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.1)||5/7/15||20 V, 5 A|
|USB Type-C rev1.2||3/25/16||5 V, 3 A|
|USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.2)||3/25/16||20 V, 5 A|
|USB Power Delivery revision 2.0 (version 1.3)||1/12/17||20 V, 5 A|
|USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 1.1)||1/12/17||20 V, 5 A|
|USB Type-C rev1.3||7/14/17||5 V, 3 A|
|USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 1.2)||6/21/18||20 V, 5 A|
|USB Type-C rev1.4||3/29/19||5 V, 3 A|
|USB Type-C rev2.0||8/29/19||5 V, 3 A|
Enabling USB4 over
connectors and cables
|USB Power Delivery revision 3.0 (version 2.0)||8/29/19||20 V, 5 A|
|USB Power Delivery revision 3.1||5/26/21||48 V, 5 A|
Understanding FRS - Fast-Role-Swap
|What does it mean:|
|CC:||Configuration Channel||PD:||Power Delivery|
|DFP:||Downstream Facing Port||PPS:||Programmable Power Supply|
|DRP:||Dual Role Port||UFP:||Upstream Facing Port|
|FSR:||Fast Role Swap||USB:||Universal Serial Bus|
Example FRS Power Charging
GaN: The Gallium Nitride Secret
As you probably know, computers today are made from silicon chips. This happened because silicon is a, widely available, element and relatively easy to work with. It's also an excellent semiconductor because of its adjustable electrical properties. However, Gallium nitride or GaN is discovered to be a newer, better alternative to silicon. This material is better at conducting higher voltage over longer times compared to silicon. Electrical currents also travel faster through it, allowing for faster processing. This better conductivity leads to higher efficiency. That's because it doesn't need as much energy to get the same output as compared to silicon transistors. It also allowed manufacturers to create chips in a denser, more compact form since less energy meant less heat. GaN chips also have higher voltage capacity and are more resistant to heat, perfect for power transfer applications. All these properties make GaN perfect for charging technologies. It can output the same power as silicon chips without requiring as much space, produce less heat despite having high wattage, and is more power-efficient. That's why you can buy small GaN power chargers that can fast-charge multiple devices while retaining the same size as your current charger.
Why Is Gallium Nitride Superior to Silicon?
Benefits of a GaN USB Charger
What Is A GaN Charger
Why Buy A GaN Charger
The primary reason to buy a GaN charger is that they’re more efficient at transferring current. Chargers made with gallium nitride tend to last longer as well. This means you get more energy put into your device which equates to less time it takes to charge your smartphone or other devices.
The reduction in consumption of materials such as plastic is achieved with the increase in so-called power density that enables smaller components to manage a larger power delivery. A high power density also cuts down recycling and environmental costs.
If every power adapter achieved at least 1% higher efficiency, the world could save about 90 terawatt-hours of energy, equivalent to the output of 12 (average sized)nuclear plants, in addition, if one billion chargers worldwide were to use GaN technology, Approx. 0.2 million tons of plastics and raw materials could be saved.
What is USB 3.1
What is USB Graphic?
Summary - Bandwidth vs Speed
|Bandwidth versus Speed|
|Bandwidth is the capacity available for use in data transmission.||Speed is the rate of data transfer across the transmission path.|
|The bandwidth can be a higher value depending on the characteristics of the transmission medium etc.||For a given network speed of a connection cannot be higher than the bandwidth of the network connection.|
|Unit of Measurement|
|The measurement for bandwidth in communication is Hz and bps in network connections.||The measurement of speed is bps.|
|Communication Through a Bus Inside a Processor|
|The bandwidth is the amount of data transmits via the bus.||The speed is the clock rate of the bus.|
USB Types and Naming
USB 3.2 Gen 1
USB 3.1 Gen1
SuperSpeed USB 5Gbps
USB 3.2 Gen 2
USB 3.1 Gen2
SuperSpeed USB 10Gbps
USB 3.2 Gen 2x2
SuperSpeed USB 20Gbps
USB Gen 2x2
SuperSpeed USB 40Gbps
- Bandwidth up to 40Gbps
- Power Delivery up to 240W
- E-mark IC
- Support more protocols, DisplayPort™ and PCI express
- Type-C cable ONLY
- Backwards compatible with USB3.2, USB2.0 and Thunderbolt™ 3 (the resulting connection scales to the best mutual capability of the devices being connected.)
- USB-IF Certified
USB4 Transfer Speed
40GB/s Data Bandwidth | Thunderbolt 3 Compatible | Dynamic Bandwidth Sharing | 240W Power Delivery
Difference Between Bandwidth and Speed
You might come across bandwidth and data transfer rate being used synonymously. While they are related, they refer to two very different measurements. Here is the explanation of differences. The key difference between bandwidth and speed is that the bandwidth is the capacity available for use in data transmission while the speed is the data transferring rate.
Bandwidth Bandwidth is the maximum potential data that can be transferred within a given time. The bandwidth is shared among all users of the bandwidth.
Data Transfer Rate The data transfer rate is the actual amount of data that is passed from one location to another over a given period of time. The most common example is a Link Aggregation where a number of Ethernet connection are bonded into a single interface. The bandwidth is the sum of the total connections but the speed is determined by the physical network connection.